Biological Properties, Bioactive Constituents, and Pharmacokinetics of Some Capsicum spp. and Capsaicinoids

Article Authors: Gaber El-Saber Batiha, Ali Alqahtani, Oluwafemi Adeleke Ojo, Hazem M Shaheen, Lamiaa Wasef, Mahmoud Elzeiny, Mahmoud Ismail, Mahmoud Shalaby, Toshihiro Murata, Adrian Zaragoza-Bastida, Nallely Rivero-Perez, Amany Magdy Beshbishy, Keneth Iceland Kasozi, Philippe Jeandet, Helal F Hetta


Pepper originated from the Capsicum genus, which is recognized as one of the most predominant and globally distributed genera of the Solanaceae family. It is a diverse genus, consisting of more than 31 different species including five domesticated species, Capsicum baccatumC. annuumC. pubescenC. frutescens, and C. chinense. Pepper is the most widely used spice in the world and is highly valued due to its pungency and unique flavor. Pepper is a good source of provitamin A; vitamins E and C; carotenoids; and phenolic compounds such as capsaicinoids, luteolin, and quercetin. All of these compounds are associated with their antioxidant as well as other biological activities. Interestingly, Capsicum fruits have been used as food additives in the treatment of toothache, parasitic infections, coughs, wound healing, sore throat, and rheumatism. Moreover, it possesses antimicrobial, antiseptic, anticancer, counterirritant, appetite stimulator, antioxidant, and immunomodulator activities. Capsaicin and Capsicum creams are accessible in numerous ways and have been utilized in HIV-linked neuropathy and intractable pain.


University Researchers

  • Affiliation

    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Damanhour 22511, AlBeheira, Egypt.

    Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, King Khalid University, Guraiger, Abha 62529, Saudi Arabia.

    Department of Biochemistry, Landmark University, Omu-Aran 251101, Nigeria.

    Department of Pharmacognosy, Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 981-8558, Japan.

    Área Académica de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Instituto de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Rancho Universitario Av. Universidad km 1, EX-Hda de Aquetzalpa, Tulancingo, Hidalgo 43600, Mexico.

    National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Nishi 2-13, Inada-cho, Obihiro 080-8555, Hokkaido, Japan.

    Infection Medicine, Deanery of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, The University of Edinburgh, 1 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK.

    Research Unit “Induced Resistance and Plant Bioprotection”, EA 4707, SFR Condorcet FR CNRS 3417, Faculty of Sciences, University of Reims, PO Box 1039, CEDEX 2, 51687 Reims, France.

    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut 71515, Egypt.

    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Clifton Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45221, USA.