Protective role of resveratrol, a natural polyphenol, in sodium fluoride-induced toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster
Sodium fluoride (NaF) is used in water fluoridation and dental products such as mouth rinses and toothpastes. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxicity of NaF and the protective role of resveratrol in Drosophila melanogaster. For longevity assay, Harwich strain of D. melanogaster was treated with NaF (0, 10, 30, 50, 70 and 90?mg/kg diet) throughout the lifespan and daily mortality recorded. Then, flies were again treated with similar doses of NaF for seven?days to evaluate survival rate and oxidative stress markers. Thereafter, 60?mg resveratrol/kg diet was selected to determine its ameliorative role in NaF (70?mg/kg)-induced toxicity in flies: Group A (control), Group B (60?mg resveratrol/kg diet), Group C (70?mg NaF/kg diet), and Group D (resveratrol, 60?mg/kg diet)?+?NaF, 70?mg/kg diet). Thereafter, Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activities, as well as total thiol (T-SH), nitrites/nitrates and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were determined. The results showed that resveratrol prevented NaF-induced elevation of H2O2 and nitrites/nitrates levels, as well as catalase activity. In addition, resveratrol restored NaF-induced inhibition of GST and AChE activities and depletion of T-SH content (P?<?0.05). Conclusively, resveratrol offered protective benefit against NaF-mediated toxicity in flies due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
D. melanogaster was used to understand the impact of NaF on lifespan and emergence rate as well as the rescue role of resveratrol. These parameters are difficult to carry out in previously used models such as rodents. This further enforces in part, the suitability of D. melanogaster in studying NaF-induced toxicity and the therapeutic effects of drugs.
Additionally, we found that resveratrol rescued D. melanogaster from oxidative stress-induced by sodium fluoride (NaF) administration. This study is of public health significance as it indicated that the consumption of fruits rich in resveratrol such as grapes may offer protective role against inadvertent exposure to NaF and related chemicals.